nmap介绍

NMAP(“网络映射”)是一个自由和开源工具,进行网络发现和安全审计。许多系统和网络管理员发现它对任务很有用,如网络库存,管理服务,计划升级和监控主机或服务的正常运行时间任务。

NMAP使用原始IP包以独特的方式来确定在网络上哪些主机是可用,这些主机正在提供什么样的服务(应用程序的名称和版本),什么操作系统(和OS版本),它们都在使用运行什么类型的过滤器/防火墙,和许多其他特性。它的目的是快速扫描大型网络,他能很好的运行在单一主机上。

Nmap能运行在所有主流操作系统的计算机中,官方的二进制软件包可用于Linux,Windows和Mac OS X的,除了经典的命令行Nmap的可执行文件,nmap还包括一个先进的GUI的套件和结果查看器工具(Zenmap),一种灵活的数据传送、重定向和调试工具(NCAT),用于比较扫描结果(Ndiff)的实用程序,并且一个分组产生和响应分析工具(Nping)。

Nmap的被评为“年度安全产品”,由Linux杂志,信息世界,LinuxQuestions.Org和Codetalker摘要。nmap甚至出现在十二部的电影中,包括重装上阵,虎胆龙威4,龙纹身的女孩,和谍影重重。

Nmap:

资料来源:http://nmap.org/
Nmap的 首页
Nmap的 源代码版本库

作者:Fyodor
许可:GPLv2

在nmap里的其它工具

nping - 网络数据包生成工具/Ping实用程序
:~# nping -h
Nping 0.6.40 ( http://nmap.org/nping )
Usage: nping [Probe mode] [Options] {target specification}

TARGET SPECIFICATION:
  Targets may be specified as hostnames, IP addresses, networks, etc.
  Ex: scanme.nmap.org, microsoft.com/24, 192.168.0.1; 10.0.*.1-24

PROBE MODES:
  --tcp-connect                    : Unprivileged TCP connect probe mode.
  --tcp                            : TCP probe mode.
  --udp                            : UDP probe mode.
  --icmp                           : ICMP probe mode.
  --arp                            : ARP/RARP probe mode.
  --tr, --traceroute               : Traceroute mode (can only be used with
                                     TCP/UDP/ICMP modes).
TCP CONNECT MODE:
   -p, --dest-port <port spec>     : Set destination port(s).
   -g, --source-port <portnumber>  : Try to use a custom source port.

TCP PROBE MODE:
   -g, --source-port <portnumber>  : Set source port.
   -p, --dest-port <port spec>     : Set destination port(s).
   --seq <seqnumber>               : Set sequence number.
   --flags <flag list>             : Set TCP flags (ACK,PSH,RST,SYN,FIN...)
   --ack <acknumber>               : Set ACK number.
   --win <size>                    : Set window size.
   --badsum                        : Use a random invalid checksum.

UDP PROBE MODE:
   -g, --source-port <portnumber>  : Set source port.
   -p, --dest-port <port spec>     : Set destination port(s).
   --badsum                        : Use a random invalid checksum.

ICMP PROBE MODE:
  --icmp-type <type>               : ICMP type.
  --icmp-code <code>               : ICMP code.
  --icmp-id <id>                   : Set identifier.
  --icmp-seq <n>                   : Set sequence number.
  --icmp-redirect-addr <addr>      : Set redirect address.
  --icmp-param-pointer <pnt>       : Set parameter problem pointer.
  --icmp-advert-lifetime <time>    : Set router advertisement lifetime.
  --icmp-advert-entry <IP,pref>    : Add router advertisement entry.
  --icmp-orig-time  <timestamp>    : Set originate timestamp.
  --icmp-recv-time  <timestamp>    : Set receive timestamp.
  --icmp-trans-time <timestamp>    : Set transmit timestamp.

ARP/RARP PROBE MODE:
  --arp-type <type>                : Type: ARP, ARP-reply, RARP, RARP-reply.
  --arp-sender-mac <mac>           : Set sender MAC address.
  --arp-sender-ip  <addr>          : Set sender IP address.
  --arp-target-mac <mac>           : Set target MAC address.
  --arp-target-ip  <addr>          : Set target IP address.

IPv4 OPTIONS:
  -S, --source-ip                  : Set source IP address.
  --dest-ip <addr>                 : Set destination IP address (used as an
                                     alternative to {target specification} ).
  --tos <tos>                      : Set type of service field (8bits).
  --id  <id>                       : Set identification field (16 bits).
  --df                             : Set Don't Fragment flag.
  --mf                             : Set More Fragments flag.
  --ttl <hops>                     : Set time to live [0-255].
  --badsum-ip                      : Use a random invalid checksum.
  --ip-options <S|R [route]|L [route]|T|U ...>     : Set IP options
  --ip-options <hex string>                        : Set IP options
  --mtu <size>                     : Set MTU. Packets get fragmented if MTU is
                                     small enough.
IPv6 OPTIONS:
  -6, --IPv6                       : Use IP version 6.
  --dest-ip                        : Set destination IP address (used as an
                                     alternative to {target specification}).
  --hop-limit                      : Set hop limit (same as IPv4 TTL).
  --traffic-class <class> :        : Set traffic class.
  --flow <label>                   : Set flow label.

ETHERNET OPTIONS:
  --dest-mac <mac>                 : Set destination mac address. (Disables
                                     ARP resolution)
  --source-mac <mac>               : Set source MAC address.
  --ether-type <type>              : Set EtherType value.

PAYLOAD OPTIONS:
  --data <hex string>              : Include a custom payload.
  --data-string <text>             : Include a custom ASCII text.
  --data-length <len>              : Include len random bytes as payload.

ECHO CLIENT/SERVER:
  --echo-client <passphrase>       : Run Nping in client mode.
  --echo-server <passphrase>       : Run Nping in server mode.
  --echo-port <port>               : Use custom <port> to listen or connect.
  --no-crypto                      : Disable encryption and authentication.
  --once                           : Stop the server after one connection.
  --safe-payloads                  : Erase application data in echoed packets.

TIMING AND PERFORMANCE:
  Options which take <time> are in seconds, or append 'ms' (milliseconds),
  's' (seconds), 'm' (minutes), or 'h' (hours) to the value (e.g. 30m, 0.25h).
  --delay <time>                   : Adjust delay between probes.
  --rate  <rate>                   : Send num packets per second.

MISC:
  -h, --help                       : Display help information.
  -V, --version                    : Display current version number.
  -c, --count <n>                  : Stop after <n> rounds.
  -e, --interface <name>           : Use supplied network interface.
  -H, --hide-sent                  : Do not display sent packets.
  -N, --no-capture                 : Do not try to capture replies.
  --privileged                     : Assume user is fully privileged.
  --unprivileged                   : Assume user lacks raw socket privileges.
  --send-eth                       : Send packets at the raw Ethernet layer.
  --send-ip                        : Send packets using raw IP sockets.
  --bpf-filter <filter spec>       : Specify custom BPF filter.

OUTPUT:
  -v                               : Increment verbosity level by one.
  -v[level]                        : Set verbosity level. E.g: -v4
  -d                               : Increment debugging level by one.
  -d[level]                        : Set debugging level. E.g: -d3
  -q                               : Decrease verbosity level by one.
  -q[N]                            : Decrease verbosity level N times
  --quiet                          : Set verbosity and debug level to minimum.
  --debug                          : Set verbosity and debug to the max level.

EXAMPLES:
  nping scanme.nmap.org
  nping --tcp -p 80 --flags rst --ttl 2 192.168.1.1
  nping --icmp --icmp-type time --delay 500ms 192.168.254.254
  nping --echo-server "public" -e wlan0 -vvv
  nping --echo-client "public" echo.nmap.org --tcp -p1-1024 --flags ack

SEE THE MAN PAGE FOR MANY MORE OPTIONS, DESCRIPTIONS, AND EXAMPLES

ndiff - 比较Nmap扫描结果

:~# ndiff -h
Usage: /usr/bin/ndiff [option] FILE1 FILE2
Compare two Nmap XML files and display a list of their differences.
Differences include host state changes, port state changes, and changes to
service and OS detection.

  -h, --help     display this help
  -v, --verbose  also show hosts and ports that haven't changed.
  --text         display output in text format (default)
  --xml          display output in XML format

NCAT - 连接和重定向套接字

:~# ncat -h
Ncat 6.40 ( http://nmap.org/ncat )
Usage: ncat [options] [hostname] [port]

Options taking a time assume seconds. Append 'ms' for milliseconds,
's' for seconds, 'm' for minutes, or 'h' for hours (e.g. 500ms).
  -4                         Use IPv4 only
  -6                         Use IPv6 only
  -U, --unixsock             Use Unix domain sockets only
  -C, --crlf                 Use CRLF for EOL sequence
  -c, --sh-exec <command>    Executes the given command via /bin/sh
  -e, --exec <command>       Executes the given command
      --lua-exec <filename>  Executes the given Lua script
  -g hop1[,hop2,...]         Loose source routing hop points (8 max)
  -G <n>                     Loose source routing hop pointer (4, 8, 12, ...)
  -m, --max-conns <n>        Maximum <n> simultaneous connections
  -h, --help                 Display this help screen
  -d, --delay <time>         Wait between read/writes
  -o, --output <filename>    Dump session data to a file
  -x, --hex-dump <filename>  Dump session data as hex to a file
  -i, --idle-timeout <time>  Idle read/write timeout
  -p, --source-port port     Specify source port to use
  -s, --source addr          Specify source address to use (doesn't affect -l)
  -l, --listen               Bind and listen for incoming connections
  -k, --keep-open            Accept multiple connections in listen mode
  -n, --nodns                Do not resolve hostnames via DNS
  -t, --telnet               Answer Telnet negotiations
  -u, --udp                  Use UDP instead of default TCP
      --sctp                 Use SCTP instead of default TCP
  -v, --verbose              Set verbosity level (can be used several times)
  -w, --wait <time>          Connect timeout
      --append-output        Append rather than clobber specified output files
      --send-only            Only send data, ignoring received; quit on EOF
      --recv-only            Only receive data, never send anything
      --allow                Allow only given hosts to connect to Ncat
      --allowfile            A file of hosts allowed to connect to Ncat
      --deny                 Deny given hosts from connecting to Ncat
      --denyfile             A file of hosts denied from connecting to Ncat
      --broker               Enable Ncat's connection brokering mode
      --chat                 Start a simple Ncat chat server
      --proxy <addr[:port]>  Specify address of host to proxy through
      --proxy-type <type>    Specify proxy type ("http" or "socks4")
      --proxy-auth <auth>    Authenticate with HTTP or SOCKS proxy server
      --ssl                  Connect or listen with SSL
      --ssl-cert             Specify SSL certificate file (PEM) for listening
      --ssl-key              Specify SSL private key (PEM) for listening
      --ssl-verify           Verify trust and domain name of certificates
      --ssl-trustfile        PEM file containing trusted SSL certificates
      --version              Display Ncat's version information and exit

See the ncat(1) manpage for full options, descriptions and usage examples

NMAP - 网络映射

:~# nmap -h
Nmap 6.40 ( http://nmap.org )
Usage: nmap [Scan Type(s)] [Options] {target specification}
TARGET SPECIFICATION:
  Can pass hostnames, IP addresses, networks, etc.
  Ex: scanme.nmap.org, microsoft.com/24, 192.168.0.1; 10.0.0-255.1-254
  -iL <inputfilename>: Input from list of hosts/networks
  -iR <num hosts>: Choose random targets
  --exclude <host1[,host2][,host3],...>: Exclude hosts/networks
  --excludefile <exclude_file>: Exclude list from file

HOST DISCOVERY:
  -sL: List Scan - simply list targets to scan
  -sn: Ping Scan - disable port scan
  -Pn: Treat all hosts as online -- skip host discovery
  -PS/PA/PU/PY[portlist]: TCP SYN/ACK, UDP or SCTP discovery to given ports
  -PE/PP/PM: ICMP echo, timestamp, and netmask request discovery probes
  -PO[protocol list]: IP Protocol Ping
  -n/-R: Never do DNS resolution/Always resolve [default: sometimes]
  --dns-servers <serv1[,serv2],...>: Specify custom DNS servers
  --system-dns: Use OS's DNS resolver
  --traceroute: Trace hop path to each host

SCAN TECHNIQUES:
  -sS/sT/sA/sW/sM: TCP SYN/Connect()/ACK/Window/Maimon scans
  -sU: UDP Scan
  -sN/sF/sX: TCP Null, FIN, and Xmas scans
  --scanflags <flags>: Customize TCP scan flags
  -sI <zombie host[:probeport]>: Idle scan
  -sY/sZ: SCTP INIT/COOKIE-ECHO scans
  -sO: IP protocol scan
  -b <FTP relay host>: FTP bounce scan

PORT SPECIFICATION AND SCAN ORDER:
  -p <port ranges>: Only scan specified ports
    Ex: -p22; -p1-65535; -p U:53,111,137,T:21-25,80,139,8080,S:9
  -F: Fast mode - Scan fewer ports than the default scan
  -r: Scan ports consecutively - don't randomize
  --top-ports <number>: Scan <number> most common ports
  --port-ratio <ratio>: Scan ports more common than <ratio>

SERVICE/VERSION DETECTION:
  -sV: Probe open ports to determine service/version info
  --version-intensity <level>: Set from 0 (light) to 9 (try all probes)
  --version-light: Limit to most likely probes (intensity 2)
  --version-all: Try every single probe (intensity 9)
  --version-trace: Show detailed version scan activity (for debugging)

SCRIPT SCAN:
  -sC: equivalent to --script=default
  --script=<Lua scripts>: <Lua scripts> is a comma separated list of
           directories, script-files or script-categories
  --script-args=<n1=v1,[n2=v2,...]>: provide arguments to scripts
  --script-args-file=filename: provide NSE script args in a file
  --script-trace: Show all data sent and received
  --script-updatedb: Update the script database.
  --script-help=<Lua scripts>: Show help about scripts.
           <Lua scripts> is a comma separted list of script-files or
           script-categories.

OS DETECTION:
  -O: Enable OS detection
  --osscan-limit: Limit OS detection to promising targets
  --osscan-guess: Guess OS more aggressively

TIMING AND PERFORMANCE:
  Options which take <time> are in seconds, or append 'ms' (milliseconds),
  's' (seconds), 'm' (minutes), or 'h' (hours) to the value (e.g. 30m).
  -T<0-5>: Set timing template (higher is faster)
  --min-hostgroup/max-hostgroup <size>: Parallel host scan group sizes
  --min-parallelism/max-parallelism <numprobes>: Probe parallelization
  --min-rtt-timeout/max-rtt-timeout/initial-rtt-timeout <time>: Specifies
      probe round trip time.
  --max-retries <tries>: Caps number of port scan probe retransmissions.
  --host-timeout <time>: Give up on target after this long
  --scan-delay/--max-scan-delay <time>: Adjust delay between probes
  --min-rate <number>: Send packets no slower than <number> per second
  --max-rate <number>: Send packets no faster than <number> per second

FIREWALL/IDS EVASION AND SPOOFING:
  -f; --mtu <val>: fragment packets (optionally w/given MTU)
  -D <decoy1,decoy2[,ME],...>: Cloak a scan with decoys
  -S <IP_Address>: Spoof source address
  -e <iface>: Use specified interface
  -g/--source-port <portnum>: Use given port number
  --data-length <num>: Append random data to sent packets
  --ip-options <options>: Send packets with specified ip options
  --ttl <val>: Set IP time-to-live field
  --spoof-mac <mac address/prefix/vendor name>: Spoof your MAC address
  --badsum: Send packets with a bogus TCP/UDP/SCTP checksum

OUTPUT:
  -oN/-oX/-oS/-oG <file>: Output scan in normal, XML, s|<rIpt kIddi3,
     and Grepable format, respectively, to the given filename.
  -oA <basename>: Output in the three major formats at once
  -v: Increase verbosity level (use -vv or more for greater effect)
  -d: Increase debugging level (use -dd or more for greater effect)
  --reason: Display the reason a port is in a particular state
  --open: Only show open (or possibly open) ports
  --packet-trace: Show all packets sent and received
  --iflist: Print host interfaces and routes (for debugging)
  --log-errors: Log errors/warnings to the normal-format output file
  --append-output: Append to rather than clobber specified output files
  --resume <filename>: Resume an aborted scan
  --stylesheet <path/URL>: XSL stylesheet to transform XML output to HTML
  --webxml: Reference stylesheet from Nmap.Org for more portable XML
  --no-stylesheet: Prevent associating of XSL stylesheet w/XML output

MISC:
  -6: Enable IPv6 scanning
  -A: Enable OS detection, version detection, script scanning, and traceroute
  --datadir <dirname>: Specify custom Nmap data file location
  --send-eth/--send-ip: Send using raw ethernet frames or IP packets
  --privileged: Assume that the user is fully privileged
  --unprivileged: Assume the user lacks raw socket privileges
  -V: Print version number
  -h: Print this help summary page.

EXAMPLES:
  nmap -v -A scanme.nmap.org
  nmap -v -sn 192.168.0.0/16 10.0.0.0/8
  nmap -v -iR 10000 -Pn -p 80
SEE THE MAN PAGE (http://nmap.org/book/man.html) FOR MORE OPTIONS AND EXAMPLES

NMAP 用法示例

在扫描详细模式(-v),启用操作系统检测,版本检测,脚本扫描,和traceroute(-A),版本检测(-sV)针对目标IP(192.168.1.1):

:~# nmap -v -A -sV 192.168.1.1

Starting Nmap 6.45 ( http://nmap.org ) at 2014-05-13 18:40 MDT
NSE: Loaded 118 scripts for scanning.
NSE: Script Pre-scanning.
Initiating ARP Ping Scan at 18:40
Scanning 192.168.1.1 [1 port]
Completed ARP Ping Scan at 18:40, 0.06s elapsed (1 total hosts)
Initiating Parallel DNS resolution of 1 host. at 18:40
Completed Parallel DNS resolution of 1 host. at 18:40, 0.00s elapsed
Initiating SYN Stealth Scan at 18:40
Scanning router.localdomain (192.168.1.1) [1000 ports]
Discovered open port 53/tcp on 192.168.1.1
Discovered open port 22/tcp on 192.168.1.1
Discovered open port 80/tcp on 192.168.1.1
Discovered open port 3001/tcp on 192.168.1.1

nping 用法示例

使用TCP模式(-tcp)使用SYN标志探测端口22(-p 22)使用 SYN 标志 (-flags SYN)与 2次 ttl 值(-ttl 2)在远程主机上(192.168.1.1):

root@kali:~# nping --tcp -p 22 --flags syn --ttl 2 192.168.1.1

Starting Nping 0.6.45 ( http://nmap.org/nping ) at 2014-05-13 18:43 MDT SENT (0.0673s) TCP 192.168.1.15:60125 > 192.168.1.1:22 S ttl=2 id=54240 iplen=40 seq=1720523417 win=1480
RCVD (0.0677s) TCP 192.168.1.1:22 > 192.168.1.15:60125 SA ttl=64 id=0 iplen=44 seq=3377886789 win=5840 <mss 1460> SENT (1.0678s) TCP 192.168.1.15:60125 > 192.168.1.1:22 S ttl=2 id=54240 iplen=40 seq=1720523417 win=1480
RCVD (1.0682s) TCP 192.168.1.1:22 > 192.168.1.15:60125 SA ttl=64 id=0 iplen=44 seq=3393519366 win=5840 <mss 1460> SENT (2.0693s) TCP 192.168.1.15:60125 > 192.168.1.1:22 S ttl=2 id=54240 iplen=40 seq=1720523417 win=1480
RCVD (2.0696s) TCP 192.168.1.1:22 > 192.168.1.15:60125 SA ttl=64 id=0 iplen=44 seq=3409166569 win=5840 <mss 1460> SENT (3.0707s) TCP 192.168.1.15:60125 > 192.168.1.1:22 S ttl=2 id=54240 iplen=40 seq=1720523417 win=1480
RCVD (3.0710s) TCP 192.168.1.1:22 > 192.168.1.15:60125 SA ttl=64 id=0 iplen=44 seq=3424813300 win=5840 <mss 1460> SENT (4.0721s) TCP 192.168.1.15:60125 > 192.168.1.1:22 S ttl=2 id=54240 iplen=40 seq=1720523417 win=1480
RCVD (4.0724s) TCP 192.168.1.1:22 > 192.168.1.15:60125 SA ttl=64 id=0 iplen=44 seq=3440460772 win=5840 <mss 1460>
Max rtt: 0.337ms | Min rtt: 0.282ms | Avg rtt: 0.296ms
Raw packets sent: 5 (200B) | Rcvd: 5 (230B) | Lost: 0 (0.00%)
Nping done: 1 IP address pinged in 4.13 seconds

ndiff 用法示例

对比端口扫描(yesterday.xml)扫描的结果(today.xml):

:~# ndiff yesterday.xml today.xml
-Nmap 6.45 scan initiated Tue May 13 18:46:43 2014 as: nmap -v -F -oX yesterday.xml 192.168.1.1
+Nmap 6.45 scan initiated Tue May 13 18:47:58 2014 as: nmap -v -F -oX today.xml 192.168.1.1

 endian.localdomain (192.168.1.1, 00:01:6C:6F:DD:D1):
-Not shown: 96 filtered ports
+Not shown: 97 filtered ports
 PORT   STATE SERVICE VERSION
-22/tcp open  ssh

NCAT 用法示例

要详细(-v),可以运行/bin/bash的连接上(--exec “/bin /bash”),只允许1个IP地址(--allow 192.168.1.123),监听TCP端口4444(-l 4444)上,在断开时保持打开监听(--keep-open):

:~# ncat -v --exec "/bin/bash" --allow 192.168.1.123 -l 4444 --keep-open
Ncat: Version 6.45 ( http://nmap.org/ncat )
Ncat: Listening on :::4444
Ncat: Listening on 0.0.0.0:4444
Ncat: Connection from 192.168.1.123.
Ncat: Connection from 192.168.1.123:39501.
Ncat: Connection from 192.168.1.15.
Ncat: Connection from 192.168.1.15:60393.
Ncat: New connection denied: not allowed